The objective of this wide-ranging, multi-disciplinary book is to provide in depth knowledge and an attempt to highlight the current manipulations taking place in plant genome research. The book incorporates topics on plant genome, its diversity, conservation and manipulation, distributed in fifteen original articles written by eminent scholars. The authors have tried to amalgamate up-to-date information, is pertinent for researchers and students alike. The chapter include molecular mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, Comet assay to assess DNA damage and genotoxic stress in plants, olmecular evaluation of plant genomic biodiversity, biotechnological exploitations of cyanobacteria, metabolic engineering: a multifarious promising tool of post-genomic era, molecular map based breeding and gene mapping for valuable pharmaceutical alkaloid yields, a prospect strategy to unfold molecular mechanism of retinoblastoma (RB) gene pathway in human, Amaranthus: genomic diversity, evolution and its importance, Ploidy: a prime facilitator of speciation and evolution in plants, Biodegradation of sodium dodecyl sulphate, Microcystins, a novel class of toxins from cyanobacteria, and Banana genomics. The original articles include Wide hybridization in crop plants, Altered adaptive response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Production of wheat haploids by chromosome elimination technique.